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      Titanium (elements)

      Titanium is a chemical element, chemical symbol Ti, atomic number 22, located in the 4th cycle, IVB group in the periodic table of chemical elements. It is a silver-white transition metal, wherein a light weight, high strength, with a metallic luster, moisture chlorine corrosion. However, titanium cannot be used in dry chlorine gas. Even a dry chlorine gas below 0°C can cause violent chemical reactions, resulting in the formation of titanium tetrachloride, decomposition of titanium dioxide, and even burning. Only when the moisture content in chlorine gas is higher than 0.5%, titanium can maintain its stable stability.
      Titanium is considered to be a rare metal because it is dispersed and difficult to extract in nature. However, it is relatively abundant and ranks tenth among all elements. Titanium ore mainly contains ilmenite and rutile, widely distributed in the crust and lithosphere. Titanium also exists in almost all living things, rocks, water bodies and soils. The extraction of titanium from the main ore requires the Kroll or Hunter method. The most common compound of titanium is titanium dioxide, which can be used to make white pigments. Other compounds also include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) (for catalysts and smoke screens for air cover) and titanium trichloride (TiCl3) (for catalysis of polypropylene production).

      Development History
      The discovery of titanium

      Gregor
      Reverend William Gregor (1762-1817): In 1791, titanium was discovered as a titanium-containing mineral in Cornwall, England. The discoverer was Reverend William Gregor, an amateur mineralist from England. At the time, she was a pastor in charge of the Creed parish in Cornwall. (Creed) parish priest. He found some black sand beside the middle stream of the nearby Manaccan diocese. Later he discovered that the sand would be attracted by magnets. He realized that this mineral (ilmenite) contained a new element. After analysis, it was found that there are two types of metal oxides in the sand: iron oxide (whose sand is attracted by magnets) and a white metal oxide that he cannot discern. Realizing that this unidentified oxide contains an undiscovered metal, Gregory made this discovery on the Cornwall Royal Geological Society and the German "Chemistry Yearbook." At about the same time, Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein also made a similar substance but could not discern it.

      Kraprot
      2. Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743-1817): In 1795, the German chemist Clapprot also discovered this oxide when analyzing the red rutile produced in Hungary. He advocated a method for naming uranium (discovered by Claprot in 1789). The name of the Titanic Protoss "Titanic" in Greek mythology names this new element "Titanium". According to its transliteration, the Chinese name is titanium. When he heard of Gregor's earlier discovery, Kraprot made samples of Manakán minerals and confirmed that it contained titanium.

      Hunter
      3, Matthew A. Hunter: The titanium that Gregor and Klöprot discovered at that time was powdered titanium dioxide instead of titanium metal. Because titanium oxide is extremely stable, and titanium metal can directly combine with oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, etc., it is very difficult to obtain single titanium. Until 1910, it was the first time that the American chemist Hunter used titanium to reduce TiCI to obtain titanium metal with a purity of 99.9%.

      Foreign development
      In 1940, Luxembourg scientist W.J. Kroll made pure titanium from magnesium-reduced TiCl4. Since then, the magnesium reduction method (also referred to as the Kroll method) and the sodium reduction method (also referred to as the Hunter method) have become industrial methods for producing sponge titanium. In the United States, in 1948, 2 tons of titanium sponge was produced by magnesium reduction method, and industrial production of titanium began.

      In 1947, people began to smelt titanium in factories. In that year, the output was only 2 tons. In 1955, production surged to 20,000 tons. In 1972, the annual output reached 200,000 tons. Titanium has higher yield strength than steel, and its weight is almost half that of steel of the same size. Titanium, although slightly heavier than aluminum, has a yield strength twice that of aluminum. The specific strength of titanium is higher than that of aluminum and steel, and the specific modulus is very close to that of aluminum and steel. In space rockets and missiles, titanium is used in place of steel. According to statistics, the titanium used for space navigation every year has reached more than one thousand tons. Very fine titanium powder is a good fuel for rockets, so titanium is known as cosmic metal and space metal.

      Titanium reacts easily with air at high temperatures, but the melting point is as high as 1668°C. At room temperature, titanium is not afraid of dilute nitric acid corrosion, but does not tolerate 5% or more of sulfuric acid, and 7% hydrochloric acid corrosion. Titanium is not afraid of normal temperature seawater, Someone once submerged a piece of titanium into the sea and took a look at it five years later. There were many small animals and submarine plants stuck on it, but there was no rust at all and it was still bright and shiny. People began to use titanium to make submarines - titanium submarines. Because titanium is very strong and can withstand high pressures, this submarine can sail in deep waters up to 4,500 meters deep.

      Domestic development
      The Chinese titanium industry started in the 1950s. In 1954, the Beijing Nonferrous Metal Research Institute began research on the preparation process of titanium sponge. In 1956, the country included titanium as a strategic metal in its 12-year development plan. In 1958, a titanium sponge industrial trial was implemented at the Fushun Aluminum Plant and the first titanium sponge production plant in China was established. At the same time, China's first titanium plate processing material production test workshop was established in Shenyang Non-ferrous Metal Processing Factory.
      Titanium ore
      In the 1960s and 1970s, under the unified planning of the country, more than 10 sponge titanium production units represented by the Zunyi Titanium Plant were successively built; In 1967, China established the first titanium tube rod processing material production test plant and the second titanium plate strip production test plant at the Luoyang copper processing plant. The main task of the trial development of the first domestic nuclear submarine, the first guided missile destroyer, and the titanium material for aviation at that time was assumed. Until Baoji Non-ferrous Metal Processing Plant was completed and put into production in 1972, Luoyang Copper Processing transferred its processing data to the Beijing Nonferrous Metal Research Institute. According to the professional division of the Ministry of Metallurgy, it no longer undertakes the development and trial production of titanium materials; The Baoji Nonferrous Metal Processing Plant and Baoji Precious Metals Institute were built with the assistance of Beijing Nonferrous Metal Research Institute, Shenyang Aluminum Magnesium Institute, Fushun Aluminum Plant, Shenyang Nonferrous Metal Processing Plant, Northeast Light Alloy Processing Plant, and Luoyang Copper Processing Plant. Since then, Baoji Nonferrous Metals Processing Factory and Baoji Precious Metals Co., Ltd. have taken the lead in the industry and have taken over the production and development of most of the domestic titanium processing materials. At the same time, China has also become the fourth country with a complete titanium industrial system after the United States, the former Soviet Union, and Japan.

      Around 1980, the production of sponge titanium in China reached 2,800 tons. However, due to the lack of understanding of titanium at that time, the high price of titanium has also limited the application of titanium. The output of titanium processing materials is only about 200 tons. The Chinese titanium industry is in trouble. Under such circumstances, it was advocated by Comrade Fang Yi, then Vice Premier of the State Council, supported by Comrades Zhu Rongji and Yuan Baohua. In July 1982, the National Leading Group for the Promotion and Application of Titanium was set up across inter-ministerial committees to specifically coordinate the development of the titanium industry. This contributed to the booming production and sales of titanium titanium and titanium processing materials from China in the 1980s to the early 1990s and the rapid and steady development of the titanium industry.
      Titanium metal
      Content distribution
      In the ten-kilometer-thick earth formation on the surface of the earth, the titanium content is as much as six thousandths, 61 times more than that of copper. The content in the earth's crust is ranked tenth (elements in the earth's crust: oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, hydrogen, titanium), Grabbing a handful of mud from the ground, all of which contain a few parts of titanium, It is not rare that there are more than 10 million tons of titanium in the world.

      There are hundreds of tons of sand and gravel on Earth. Titanium and zirconium, two kinds of minerals that are heavier than sandstone, are mixed in sand and gravel. After washing seawater for millions of years, the heavy ilmenite and zircon sand mines are washed together. On the long coast, a piece of titanium ore and zirconium deposits formed. This seam is a kind of black sand, usually a few centimeters to tens of centimeters thick. Titanium is not ferromagnetic and nuclear submarines built with titanium do not need to worry about magnetic mine attacks.

      Physical properties
      Titanium has a metallic luster and is malleable.
      The density is 4.5 g/cm3.
      Melting point 1660±10°C. Boiling point 3287 °C.
      chemical valence + 2, +3 and +4. The ionization energy is 6.82 eV.
      The main features of titanium are low density, high mechanical strength, and easy processing. The plasticity of titanium depends mainly on purity. The purer the titanium, the greater the plasticity. It has good corrosion resistance and is not affected by the atmosphere and seawater. Under normal temperature, it will not be corroded by hydrochloric acid below 7%, sulfuric acid below 5%, nitric acid, aqua regia or dilute alkali solution; Only hydrofluoric acid, concentrated hydrochloric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid can be applied to it.

      Titanium is an important alloying element in steels and alloys. The density of titanium is 4.506-4.516g/cc (20°C), which is higher than aluminum and lower than iron, copper and nickel. But the strength is at the top of the metal. Melting point 1668±4°C, latent heat of fusion 3.7-5.0 kcal/g atom, boiling point 3260±20°C, vaporization potential 102.5-112.5 kcal/g atom, critical temperature 4350°C, critical pressure 1130 atmospheres. Titanium has poor thermal and electrical conductivity, similar to or slightly lower than stainless steel, Titanium has superconductivity, and the superconducting critical temperature of pure titanium is 0.38-0.4K. At 25°C, the heat capacity of titanium is 0.126 calories/gram atom·degree, the heat enthalpy 1149 cal/gram atoms, the entropy 7.33 cal/gram atoms·degrees, the metal titanium is a paramagnetic material, and the magnetic permeability is 1.00004.

      Titanium has plasticity, and the elongation of high-purity titanium can reach 50-60%, and the area shrinkage can reach 70-80%, but the shrinkage strength is low (that is, the force generated when shrinking). The presence of impurities in titanium has a great influence on its mechanical properties, especially the gap impurities (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon) can greatly increase the strength of titanium and significantly reduce its plasticity. Titanium as a structural material has good mechanical properties, which is achieved by strictly controlling the content of appropriate impurities and adding alloying elements.

      Chemical properties
      chemical reaction

      Titanium reacts with many elemental compounds at higher temperatures. Various elements can be classified into four categories according to their different reactions with titanium:
      The first type: Halogen and oxygen elements and titanium formation, covalent bonding and ion bonding compounds;
      The second category: transition elements, hydrogen, germanium, boron, carbon and nitrogen elements and titanium to generate intermetallic compounds and limited solid solution;
      The third category: zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, chromium, antimony and titanium to form infinite solid solution;
      The fourth category: Inert gases, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, rare earth elements (except helium), thorium, thorium, etc. do not react or substantially react with titanium. With compound HF and fluoride hydrogen fluoride gas reacts with titanium during heating to produce TiF4, the reaction formula is
      Ti+4HF=TiF4+2H2+135.0 kcal
      The non-aqueous hydrogen fluoride liquid forms a dense titanium tetrafluoride film on the titanium surface, preventing HF from dipping into the interior of the titanium. Hydrofluoric acid is the strongest solvent for titanium. Even hydrofluoric acid with a concentration of 1% can react violently with titanium:
      2Ti+6HF=2TiF3+3H2   TiCl3

      Anhydrous fluorides and their aqueous solutions do not react with titanium at low temperatures, and only fluorides that melt at high temperatures react significantly with titanium.
      Hydrogen chloride gas HCl and chloride corrode metals titanium, dry hydrogen chloride at> 300 ℃, the reaction with the titanium generated  TiCl4:
      Ti+4HCl=TiCl4+2H2+94.75 Kcal

      Hydrochloric acid at a concentration of <5% does not react with titanium at room temperature, and 20% hydrochloric acid reacts with titanium at room temperature to generate purple TiCl3:
      2Ti+6HCl=2TiCl3+3H2

      When the temperature is high, even dilute hydrochloric acid can corrode titanium. Various anhydrous chlorides, such as magnesium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, tin, calcium, sodium, strontium, and NH4+ ions and their aqueous solutions, do not react with titanium, and titanium is present in these chlorides. Has a good stability. Sulfuric acid and titanium sulphide have obvious reaction with 5% sulfuric acid, At room temperature, about 40% of sulfuric acid has the fastest corrosion rate for titanium. When the concentration is greater than 40% to 60%, the corrosion rate becomes slower, and 80% reaches the fastest. The heated dilute acid or 50% concentrated sulfuric acid can react with titanium to form titanium sulfate:
      Ti+H2SO4=TiSO4+H2
      2Ti+3H2SO4=Ti2(SO4)3+3H2

      Concentrated sulfuric acid heated can be reduced by titanium to produce SO2:
      2Ti+6H2SO4=Ti2(SO4)3+3SO2+6H2O+202 Kcal

      At room temperature, titanium reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form a protective film on the surface, which prevents the further reaction of hydrogen sulfide and titanium. However, at high temperatures, hydrogen sulfide reacts with titanium to precipitate hydrogen:
      Ti+H2S=TiS+H2+70 Kcal

      Titanium powder reacts with hydrogen sulfide at 600°C to form titanium sulfide. The reaction product is mainly TiS at 900°C and Ti2S3 at 1200°C. Nitric acid and dense smooth surface titanium have good stability to nitric acid, because nitric acid can quickly generate a strong oxide film on titanium surface. However, the rough surface, especially titanium sponge or titanium powder, reacts with dilute dilute nitric acid:
      3Ti+4HNO3+4H2O=3H4TiO4+4NO
      3Ti+4HNO3+H2O=3H2TiO3+4NO
      Concentrated nitric acid above 70 °C can also react with titanium:
      Ti+8HNO3=Ti(NO3)4+4NO2+4H2O

      At room temperature, titanium does not react with nitrohydrochloric acid. At high temperatures, titanium reacts with nitrohydrochloric acid to produce
      Ti+8HNO3=Ti(NO3)4+4NO2+4H2O
      In summary, the nature of titanium has a very close relationship with the temperature and its existing form and purity. Dense titanium metal is quite stable in nature, but powdered titanium can cause spontaneous combustion in air. The presence of impurities in titanium significantly affects the physical, chemical, mechanical, and corrosion resistance of titanium. In particular, some interstitial impurities, which can distort the titanium lattice, affect the various properties of titanium. The chemical activity of titanium at room temperature is very small, and it can react with a few substances such as hydrofluoric acid. However, the activity of titanium increases rapidly when the temperature increases, especially when high temperature titanium reacts violently with many substances. The smelting process of titanium is generally performed at a high temperature of 800° C. or more, and therefore must be operated under vacuum or under inert atmosphere protection. Physical properties of metallic titanium Metal titanium (Ti), gray metal. Atomic number 22, relative atomic mass 47.87. The arrangement of the extranuclear electrons in the sublayer is 1S2 2S2 2P6 3S2 3P6 3d2 4S2. Metal activity is not stable between magnesium and aluminum at room temperature. Therefore, they exist only in the chemical state in nature, and common titanium compounds include ilmenite (FeTiO3) and rutile (TiO2).
      Titanium has a high content in the earth's crust, ranking ninth, reaching 5,600 ppm, which translates into a percentage of 0.56%. Pure titanium has a density of 4.54 x 103 kg/m3, a molar volume of 10.54 cm3/mol, a poor hardness, and a Mohs hardness of only about 4 and therefore has good ductility. The thermal stability of titanium is very good, the melting point is 1660±10°C and the boiling point is 3287°C. Metal Titanium Chemical Properties Titanium has a very high reduction capacity in high temperature environments and can combine with oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and many other elements, as well as abstract oxygen from some metal oxides such as alumina. At room temperature, titanium and oxygen combine to form a very thin and dense oxide film. This layer of oxide film does not react with nitric acid, dilute sulfuric acid, dilute hydrochloric acid, and nitrohydrochloric acid at room temperature. It reacts with hydrofluoric acid, concentrated hydrochloric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid.


      Titanium is resistant to corrosion, so it is often used in the chemical industry. In the past, chemical reactors loaded hot nitric acid, are stainless steel. Stainless steel is also afraid of the strong corrosive agent - hot nitric acid, every six months, this component must be replaced. With titanium to make these parts, although costs more expensive than stainless steel parts, but it can be used continuously for five years, but computationally much more cost-effective.

      In electrochemistry, titanium is a one-way valve type metal with a very negative potential. It is usually impossible to use titanium as an anode for decomposition. The biggest drawback of titanium is that it is difficult to extract. The main reason is that titanium has a strong chemical combination at high temperatures and can be combined with oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and many other elements. Therefore, when smelting or casting, people are careful to prevent these elements from invading titanium. In the smelting of titanium, air and water are of course strictly forbidden to be close, and even the commonly used aluminum oxide crucibles in metallurgy are forbidden to use, because titanium will take oxygen from the alumina. People magnesium with titanium tetrachloride, in an inert gas phase separation with helium or argon, to extract titanium.

      People take advantage of the extremely high capacity of titanium at high temperatures. In the steelmaking process, nitrogen is easily dissolved in the molten steel. When the steel ingot cools, bubbles form in the steel ingot and affect the quality of the steel. Therefore, the steel workers added titanium metal to the molten steel, so that the titanium and nitrogen compounds became titanium nitride, floating on the molten steel surface, so that the steel ingot was relatively pure. When a supersonic plane flies, its wing temperature can reach 500°C. If the wing is made of relatively heat-resistant aluminum alloy, but the temperature reaches 200-300 °C will also be deformed, there must be a light, tough, and high temperature resistant material instead of aluminum alloy, and titanium can meet these requirements. Titanium can withstand the test of more than 100 degrees below zero, at this low temperature, titanium is still very good toughness without brittle.
      With the strong absorption of air by titanium and zirconium, air can be removed and a vacuum created. For example, using a vacuum pump made of titanium, the air can be drawn, leaving only one of ten trillion points.
      Titanium white
      Titanium compounds
      Titanium oxide, natural TiO2 is rutile, pure TiO2 is a white powder, is the best white pigment, commonly known as titanium white, white when cold, light yellow when hot. In the past, the main purpose of mining titanium mines was to obtain titanium dioxide. Titanium has strong adhesion, is not easy to change chemically, is always white, and is an excellent white coating. It has high refractive index, strong coloration, high hiding power, and stable chemical properties. Other white paints, such as zinc white ZnO and lead white 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2, do not have these excellent properties of titanium white. Particularly valuable is the non-toxic titanium dioxide. It has a very high melting point and is used to make fire-resistant glass, glazes, enamel, clay, experimental utensils that withstand high temperatures, and so on.
      Titanium dioxide is the whitest thing in the world. One gram of titanium dioxide can be painted white in an area of over 450 square centimeters. It is 5 times whiter than the commonly used white pigment, Lithopone, and is therefore the best pigment for preparing white paint. Titanium dioxide, which is used as a pigment in the world, amounts to hundreds of thousands of tons a year. Titanium dioxide can be added to paper to make the paper white and opaque. It is 10 times more effective than other materials. Therefore, titanium dioxide should be added to banknote paper and fine art paper. In addition, in order to make the color of the plastic lighter and make the rayon glossy and soft, titanium dioxide is sometimes added. In the rubber industry, titanium dioxide is also used as a white rubber filler.

      Titanium tetrachloride is very interesting. It is normally a colorless liquid (melting point -25°C, boiling point: 136.4°C). It has a pungent odor and will emit white smoke in humid air - it is hydrolyzed and becomes White titanium dioxide hydrogel. In water, it is strongly hydrolyzed to metatitanic acid H2TiO3. In the military, people use titanium tetrachloride as an artificial aerosol agent. Especially in the ocean, there is a lot of water and gas, and titanium tetrachloride is emitted. The smoke is like a white wall, blocking the enemy’s sight. In agriculture, people use titanium tetrafluoride to prevent frost.
      TiCl? is a purple crystal and its aqueous solution can be used as a reducing agent. Ti3+ is more reductive than Sn2+. The barium titanate crystal has the characteristic that when it changes shape by pressure, it will generate electric current, and once it is energized, it will change shape. So, people put barium titanate in the ultrasonic wave, it will produce the electric current under pressure, the magnitude of the electric current that it can produce can measure the intensity of the ultrasonic wave. In contrast, ultrasonic waves can be generated by passing high-frequency current through it. Barium titanate is used in almost all ultrasonic instruments. In addition, barium titanate has many uses. For example: railway workers put it under the rails to measure the pressure of the train passing; The doctor used it to make a pulse recorder. The underwater probe made of barium titanate is a sharp underwater eye. It can not only see fish, it can also see underwater reefs, icebergs and enemy submarines.

      When smelting titanium, it takes complicated steps. The ilmenite was converted into titanium tetrachloride, placed in a sealed stainless steel tank, filled with argon, and reacted with magnesium metal to obtain "titanium sponge." This porous "titanium sponge" cannot be used directly. It must also be melted into a liquid in an electric furnace to cast a titanium ingot. But it's easy to make such an electric furnace! In addition to the fact that the air in the electric furnace has to be drained, it is more troubling to find a crucible containing liquid titanium because the general refractory material contains oxides and the oxygen in it is taken away by the liquid titanium. Later, people finally invented a "water-cooled copper gong" electric furnace. Only a part of the central furnace of this kind of electric furnace is very hot, and the rest is cold. After the titanium is melted in the electric furnace, it flows to the wall of the water-cooled copper crucible and immediately forms a titanium ingot. With this method, it has been able to produce several tons of titanium blocks, but its cost can be imagined.

      Titanium physical properties
      Classification of titanium
      Industrial titanium:

      Industrial pure titanium contains more impurities than chemical pure titanium, so its strength and hardness are slightly higher, and its mechanical properties and chemical properties are similar to those of stainless steel. Compared to pure titanium titanium alloy strength is better, Better than austenitic stainless steel in terms of oxidation resistance, However, the heat resistance was poor. The content of TA1, TA2, and TA3 increased in turn, and the mechanical strength and hardness increased in turn, but the plastic toughness decreased in turn.

      β type titanium: β-type titanium composite metal can be heat-treated and strengthened. The alloy has high strength, weldability, and pressure processability, but the performance is unstable, and the melting process is complicated.
      A, β titanium plate: 0.5-4.0mm
      B, glasses plate (pure titanium): 0.8-8.0mm
      C. Target plate (pure titanium): 1 x 2m Thickness: 0.5-20mm
      D. Plating and other industrial plates (pure titanium): 0.1-50mm
      Uses: electronics, chemicals, watches, glasses, jewelry, sporting goods, machinery and equipment, electroplating equipment, environmental protection equipment, golf and precision processing industries.
      Titanium tube specifications: φ6-φ120mm Wall thickness: 0.3-3.0mm
      Titanium tube uses: environmental protection equipment, cooling tubes, titanium heating tubes, electroplating equipment, rings and various precision electrical tubes and other industries.

      A, β titanium wire specifications: φ0.8-φ6.0mm
      B, glasses titanium wire specifications: φ1.0-φ6.0mm special titanium wire
      C, titanium wire specifications: φ0.2-φ8.0mm special for hanging
      Titanium wire uses: military, medical, sporting goods, glasses, earrings, hair accessories, plating hangers, welding wire and other industries.

      A, square bar specifications: square bar: 8-12mm
      B, polished round bar: φ4-φ60mm
      C, Hairy stick, black skin stick: φ6-φ120mm
      Titanium rods use: mainly used in mechanical equipment, electroplating equipment, medical, various precision parts and other industries.

      Distribution of origin
      Element source

      Titanium is a rare metal. In fact, titanium is not rare. Its abundance in the earth's crust accounts for the seventh place, accounting for 0.45%, far higher than many common metals. However, due to the lively nature of titanium, high requirements are imposed on the smelting process, which makes it impossible for people to obtain a large amount of titanium for a long time, and thus is classified as a "rare" metal. The main minerals used for smelting titanium are ilmenite (FeTiO3), rutile (TiO2) and perovskite. The ore is treated to obtain volatile titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced with magnesium to obtain pure titanium.

      Geographical distribution
      China has 965 million tons of titanium resources, ranking first in the world and accounting for 38.85% of the world’s proven reserves. Mainly concentrated in Sichuan, Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan. The Western Panzhihua (Xichang, Panzhihua) region is China's largest titanium resource base with 870 million tons of titanium resources. China's proven titanium resources are distributed in 108 mining areas in 21 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government) (Figure 3.5.1 and Table 3.5.4). The main producing areas are Sichuan, followed by Hebei, Hainan, Guangdong, Hubei, Guangxi, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Shanxi and other provinces (regions).
      Titanium magnetite rock :
      The main deposits are located in Yanbian Hongge and Miyibaima in Panzhihua, Sichuan, and Taihe in Xichang. Chengde, Hebei Province, Temple, Montenegro, Fengning recruitment army ditch, South Gate of Chongli; Tongzi, Zuoquan, Shanxi Province; Bijigou in Yang County, Shaanxi Province; Yawei in Xinjiang; Zhao Dzhuang in Wuyang, Henan Province; Xiayu in Xingning, Guangdong Province; Huma, Heilongjiang Province; and Shangdi Village and Huairou District in Changping, Beijing. Among them, Sichuan's internal reserves (TiO2 442,563,200 tons) accounted for 95.1% of the country's equivalent reserves (TiO2 465.2283 million tons), Hebei Province (TiO2 154.446 million tons) accounted for 3.3%, Shaanxi Province accounted for 0.46%, and Shanxi Province accounted for 0.35%.
      The main deposit of rutile rock is located in Dazhao Mountain, Zaoyang, Hubei Province; Nianzigou in Daixian County, Shanxi Province; Yangchong in Xinxian County, Henan Province; Liujiazhuang, Laixi County, Shandong Province. Among them, the in-table reserves of TiO2 in rutile (of Hubei Province) accounted for 71.2% of the country's equivalent reserves (7,058,600 tons), Shanxi Province (15,479,900 tons) accounted for 20.6%, and Shaanxi Province (444,000 tons) accounted for 5.9%.

      The main ore of titanium is rutile TiO2 and ilmenite FeTiO3, and its discovery is also from the analysis of these two ores. The priest Magalor of the Menacan parish in Cornwall, southwest of England in 1791, was also a scientist who analyzed the black ore produced in his parish, which is today A new metal material was discovered in the ilmenite ore and named menacenite. Three years later, in 1795, Kraptrot analyzed the rutile produced in the Boinik region of Hungary and realized that it was a new metal oxide with resistance to acidic and alkaline solutions. It borrowed Greek mythology from the earth. The first generation of sons of the Titan Protoss Titans, named this metal titanium, the element symbol as Ti. Two years later, Kramprot confirmed that menacenite found in Gregourg was titanium.
      Titanium has strong corrosion resistance to acids and alkalis and has become an important material in chemical production.
      Titanium is generally regarded as a rare metal. In fact, its content in the earth's crust is quite large. It is more than common zinc, copper, tin, etc., and even more than chlorine and phosphorus.

      Overall situation
      As of the end of 1995, reserves and reserves of the world's rutile (including anatase) were 33.3 million tons and 16.44 million tons respectively, and the total amount of resources was about 230 million tons (TiO2 content, the same below), mainly concentrated in South Africa, India, and Sri Lanka. Australia. The world's ilmenite (TiO2) reserves and reserves are respectively based on 274.3 million tons and 435.3 million tons, and the total resources are about 1 billion tons; they are mainly concentrated in South Africa, Norway, Australia, Canada, and India.
      As of the end of 1996, China had 365704.09 million tons of primary titanium (magnetic) iron ore (fold TiO2) reserves (of which 231,915,500 t were A+B+C grades); The ilmenite (sand) mineral reserves are 38,039,900 tons (including 21,477,000 tons of A+B+C grade); the rutile mineral reserves are 2,586,600 tons (of which 737,300 tons of A+B+C grade); Rutile TiO2 reserves of 7,508,600 tons (including A + B + C level 2,424,300 t).
      If China reserves 211.47 million tons of A+B+C minerals in ilmenite ore deposits in 1996, which is calculated as 48% of TiO2, the TiO2 reserves will be 10.3064 million tons. Only accounted for 3.83% of the 270 million tons of ilmenite (TiO2) in the world in the same year; If it is combined with the A+B+C-grade reserves (231.91 million tons) of primary titanomagnetite (TiO2), about 50% of available (TiO2) reserves of granular ilmenite can be utilized. 11595.75 million tons, total TiO2 reserves of 126.264 million tons, It accounts for 47.76% of the 270 million tons of ilmenite (TiO2) reserves in the world. In this sense, China can be regarded as the country with the most abundant ilmenite resources in the world.
      If China's 1996 reserves of rutile minerals, the 737,300 tons of A+B+C class reserves are converted to TiO2 reserves of 693,300 tons based on 94% of TiO2. Together with the rutile (TiO2) reserves of 242.43 million A+B+C in the same year, a total of 31.7744 million tons, This accounted for 9.36% of the world's 3.33 million tons of rutile (TiO2) reserves in the same year. This shows that China's rutile resources are not abundant.
      Titanium chemical properties
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